Motif: 432

The holidays are here and the Motif Concerts will celebrate the season with an impressive concert of the 432 Chamber Orchestra. It consists of 13 instrumentalists and a conductor . The main concept of the ensemble is to perform at a lower than the standardised tuning but, as its conductor Ivan Yanakiev argues, much more natural for the human ear. What exactly is the difference and how easy it is to distinguish between the two tuning systems will be demonstrated during the pre-concert talk by Maestro Yanakiev himself. Afterwards, the young conductor will lead his ensemble in a programme with the most cherished festive works by Handel, Mozart, Schubert, Grieg, and others. The charming Miryana Kalushkova will shine as a soloist. She has an impressive number of awards from singing competitions and has been enthusiastically applauded in her stage appearances as Violetta from Traviata, Silva from The Gipsy Princess, among others.

An indivisible part of this festive event will be Domain Menada’s Artistique wine brand which all guests will be able to enjoy.



  • Standard ticket – BGN 20.00 (online here or at the door)
  • Student tickets – BGN 5.00 (at the door only)


Arcangelo Corelli

Concerto Grosso, op. 6, No. 8 – “Fatto per la notte di Natale”

Georg Friedrich Handel

Oratorio “Messiah” – Sinfonia

Aria “How Beautiful are the feet”

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Divertimento in F Dur, K. 138

Franz Schubert

Salve Regina

Edvard Grieg

Peer Gynt Suite (selection of the two suites)

I. Morning Mood

II. Solveig’s song

III. Anitra’s Dance

IV. In the Hall of the Mountain King


The well-forgotten concert pitch a1 = 432 Hz is in the focus of the project. This particular frequency has been accompanying the humanity along the centuries – from the natural sounds of the birds’ singing, through the melodious speech of the little children to the tuning of the folk instruments – a1 = 432 Hz is always to be found when we are looking for the most natural sound.

The concert pitch a1 = 432 Hz was an official concert pitch only for a very short time in human history – in the Kingdom of Italy from 1882 to 1884, at the same time when Giuseppe Verdi was composing. In 1885, at the international Congress in Vienna a common concert pitch for all European countries was accepted – the French diapason normala1 = 435 Hz. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the a1 = 440 Hz has almost inconceivably made its way throughout the English-speaking world. In 1955, after the end of the WWII in Frankfurt, the International Standartisation Organisation (ISO), has decided that the a of the first octave must have 440 vibrations per second. Nowadays in the concert halls, especially in Europe, the concert pitch is even higher – a1 = 442 Hz – 445 Hz.

In the 1980s a group of world renown musicians, amongst whom are Renata Tebaldi, Luciano Pavarotti, Piero Cappuccilli, have suggested to the Italian Senate that the concert pitch should be returned to Verdi’s a1 = 432 Hz  – unfortunately, with no success. Nevertheless the a1 = 432 Hz continues to be part of our ambience, independent from any standartisation.


Miryana Kalushkova was born in the city of Veliko Tarnovo and has graduated from the National Academy of Music “Prof. Pantcho Vladiugueroff” in Sofia. She is a lureate of a number of competitions among  which are „The Crown of Tarnovgrad” – Veliko Tarnovo (I prize), „Svetoslav Obretenov” – Provadiya (III prize), „Marin Goleminov Academic competition ” – Sofia (III prize). She has participated in the masterclasses of Anna Tomova-Sintova (2012), Vera Nemorova Olivier Doria (2010), Stefka Evstatieva (2010), Christina Anguelakova (2007).

Since 2012, Miryana is a soloist at the Veliko Tarnovo’s Konstantin Kissimov Operetta Theater. She is respected for her representations of the roles of Violetta („La Traviata”, Verdi), La Contessa („Le Nozze di Figaro”, Mozart), Madlen („Ball im Savoy“, Abraham), Lilyana („Bulgarians from old times“, Karastoyanov), Silva („Die Csárdásfürstin“, Kalman), Rosalinda („Die Fledermaus“, Strauß), Helen („La belle Hélène“, Offenbach), Hanna Glavari („Die Lustige Witwe“, Lehar).

In May 2015, she was a soloist at the premiere concert of the 432 Chamber Orchestra.


Ivan K. Yanakiev was born in Sofia and has graduated the National Academy of Music with a conducting major. Since July 2014, he is a PhD candidate at the Bulgarian Academy of Science’s Institute of Art Studies.

He has been a guest conductor of the Dianopoulis Chamber Orchestra (2012) and Veliko Tarnovo’s Musical Theater Operetta (2012, 2014). In November 2013, he founded the 432 Chamber Orchestra and is its chief conductor.

His scientific work regarding the concert pitch a1 = 432 Hz and the innovative temperament method “Open fifths” were warmly received at the Second Congress of the Society for Music Theory in Moscow’s “P. I. Tschaikovsky” Conservatory (September 2015).


Event Location Map

Share this event